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INGREDIENTS

INGREDIENTS

ERIOCITRIN

Identification


Ingredient

Eriocitrin

Structure:

Synonyms

Eriodictyol-7-O-rutinoside

Molecular Formula

C27H32O15

Molecular Weight

596.54

CAS no.

13463-28-0

EINECS

236-668-7

Resource

Eriocitrin is an ingredient derived from natural products, and it is contained in a juice of citrus fruits such as lemon and lime which have been already eaten in a large amount of several tens of milligrams per 100 ml.

Further, a peel and a squeezed residue are secondary products provided in squeezing a fruit juice. The extraction of an active ingredient by reusing these portions is industrially quite useful, and this is extremely profitable from the aspect of utilizing a waste. Still further, in the industry of the fruit juice, besides the peel and the like, waste liquors such as feeding water and washing water used in that treatment are provided in large amounts, and these can be utilized as eriocitrin solutions.

Scientific support

Eriocitrin and its metabolites by intestinal bacteria (eriodictyol, 3,4-dihydroxyhydrocinnamic acid, and phloroglucinol) exhibited stronger antioxidative activity and had approximately the same activity as (-)-epigallocatechin gallate. Eriocitrin and its metabolites are powerful antioxidants using an in vitro oxidation model for heart disease.

Eriocitrin, a flavonoid glycoside present in citrus fruit. It is certified that there is no problem with a safety to humans. It is negative in the mutagenicity test according to Rec-assay or Ames assay.

Application

A food material having a high concentration of eriocitrin as an antioxidant ingredient derived from citrus fruits can industrially be produced at a low cost. Further, the product is a food material having a high concentration of eriocitrin and having less bitter and rough tastes. Accordingly, when this material is added to beverages or foods, beverages or foods having less unpleasant bitter and rough tastes and having a high antioxidant effect can be obtained. Consequently, foods which help prevent diseases derived from habits of daily life can be provided.
Lemon (lime) bioflavonoids complex having 4% of eriocitrin can be utilized in beverages, foods and alcohols described below.
(1) Soft drinks black tea, barley water, green tea, oolong tea, blend tea, wild grass tea, herb tea, coffee, fruit juice, vegetable drink, cocoa, soybean milk, sports drink, carbonated drink, and milk drink
(2) Health foods vitamin drink, nutrient and nutrient aid food
(3) Other foods seasonings, vinegar, dressing, soup and "furikake" (foods for sprinkling on cooked rice)
(4) Alcohols cocktail, "chuhai" ("shochu" (low-class distilled spirit) diluted with soda water), "sour" (mixture of spirit, lemon juice, sugar, etc.), beer and wine
(5) Sweets candy, biscuit, caramel and snack sweet.

Availability

Commercial Eriocitrin 4% is obtained by extraction from Lemon (peel,immature fruit).

Lemon

Warning:

Above information is only knowledge,not an instruction of usage for this product. The owner of this webiste should not be responsible for any damage because of misuse of the product.

HESPERIDIN

Identification

Ingredient

Hesperidin


Structure:

Synonyms

(s)-7-((6-o-(6-deoxy-alpha-l-mannopyranosyl)
-beta-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy)-2,3-dihydro-5-hydroxy-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-4h-1-benzopyran-4-one; vitamin p

Molecular Formula

C28H34O15

Molecular Weight

610.57

CAS no.

520-26-3

EINECS

208-288-1

Description

The flavonoid hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside (glucoside) comprised of the flavanone (a class of flavonoids) hesperitin and the disaccharide rutinose. Hesperidin is the predominant flavonoid in lemons and oranges,. The peel and membranous parts of these fruits have the highest hesperidin concentrations,especially in immature little citrus fruits.Orange juice containing pulp is richer in the flavonoid than that without pulp. Sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis) and tangelos are the richest dietary sources of hesperidin. Hesperidin is classified as a citrus bioflavonoid.

Hesperidin, in combination with a flavone glycoside called diosmin, is used in Europe for the treatment of venous insufficiency and hemorrhoids. Hesperidin, rutin and other flavonoids thought to reduce capillary permeability and to have anti-inflammatory action were collectively known as vitamin P. These substances, however, are not vitamins and are no longer referred to, except in older literature, as vitamin P.

Hesperidin is a solid substance with low solubility in water. It is, however, much more soluble in water than its aglycone hesperetin.

Scientific support

Hesperidin may have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, hypolipidemic, vasoprotective and anticarcinogenic actions.

Although some studies indicate that hesperidin has antioxidant activity in vivo, others do not demonstrate antioxidant activity in vitro. The possible anti-inflammatory action of hesperidin is probably due to the possible anti-inflammatory action of its aglycone hesperetin. Hesperetin appears to interfere with the metabolism of arachidonic acid as well as with histamine release. Hesperetin appears to inhibit phospholipase A2, lipoxygenase and cyclo-oxygenase. There is evidence that hesperetin inhibits histamine release from mast cells, which would account for the possible anti-allergic activity of hesperidin.

Again, the possible hypolipidemic effect of hesperidin is probably due to hesperetin's possible action in lipid lowering. Hesperetin may reduce plasma cholesterol levels by inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase, as well as acyl coenzyme A: cholesterol acytransferase (ACAT). Inhibition of these enzymes by hesperetin has been demonstrated in rats fed a high cholesterol diet.

The mechanism of hesperidin's possible vasoprotective action is unclear. Animal studies have shown that hesperidin decreases microvascular permeability. Hesperidin, itself or via hesperetin, may protect endothelial cells from hypoxia by stimulating certain mitochondrial enzymes, such as succinate dehydrogenase.

The mechanism of hesperidin's possible anticarcinogenic action is also unclear. One explanation may be the inhibition of polyamine synthesis. Inhibition of lipoxygenase and cyclo-oxygenase is another possibility.

Application

Hesperidin has demonstrated some ability to favorably affect lipids and to treat some vascular disorders in humans. Other claims made for hesperidin are based on in vitro and animal studies. These include claims that hesperidin is useful in cancer and immune disorders. There are also claims that hesperidin is an anti-allergen and anti-inflammatory agent based on results from animal experiments.

Hesperidin is present in nutritional supplements as vitamin C with bioflavonoids. Typical dose in these products is about 20 mg. Hesperidin is available in hesperidin-complex supplements. Doses for this type of supplement are usually 500 mg to 2 grams daily. In Europe, hesperidin is available for the management of venous insufficiency and hemorrhoids in a combination product with diosmin. A 500-mg dose of this combination product is comprised of 50 mg of hesperidin and 450 mg of diosmin. Dose for this mixed flavonoid product, for the above conditions, is 1 to 3 grams daily. Another flavonoid, hesperidin methyl chalcone, is often marketed in formulations with hesperidin. This is a different flavonoid, and very few studies have been performed using it.

Availability

Commercial Hesperidin is obtained by extraction from immature citrus fruit.


Dried immature citrus fruit

Warning:

Above information is only knowledge,not an instruction of usage for this product. The owner of this webiste should not be responsible for any damage because of misuse of the product


LIMONIN

Identification

Ingredient

Limonin

Structure:

Synonyms

limonoate d-ring-lactone; limonoic acid di-delta-lactone

Molecular Formula

C26H30O8

Molecular Weight

470.52

CAS no.

1180-71-8

Description

Limonin is chemically related to triterpene derivatives found in the Rutaceae and Meliaceae families named limonoids. All naturally occurring citrus limonoids contain a furan ring attached to the D-ring, at C-17, as well as oxygen-containing functional groups at C-3, C-4, C-7, C-16, and C-17. Limonin contains a C-14, 15-epoxide group.

Limonin was studied as an abortifacient agent, amoebicidal substance, chemopreventive agents, and inhibitors of oral carcinogenesis. Therefore limonin may be a valuable chemical for carcinogen treatment or health enhancement.

Scientific experiments

Limonin, nomilin, and nomilinic acid are the predominant limonoids in citrus fruits.  These limonoids exist in citrus fruit primarily in the form of glucosides.  Unlike the aglycones, the limonoid glucosides  (LG) are not bitter.  Recent studies in Dr. Miller's laboratory at Baylor College of Dentistry have shown that limonoids and their corresponding glucosides are inhibitors of chemical carcinogenesis.  Since the concentration of LG in orange juice and grapefruit juice is 320 and 190 ppm, respectively, the regular consumption of these products exposes the consumer to relatively high concentrations of these anticancer agents.  Efforts to increase exposure to LG should increase the potential health benefits.  Recently, a company in Japan formulated a test product, designated LG1000, in which the concentration of LG in a mandarin orange juice was increased from 200 to 1,000 ppm.

Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of limonin isolated from the dried fruits of Evodia rutaecarpa var. bodinieri were investigated. Oral administration of 30 or 100 mg/kg limonin significantly decreased the frequency of licking and biting behavior within a unit of time at the late phase without affecting that of the early phase in the formalin test. Limonin inhibited the rise of vascular permeability induced by acetic acid and the increase of paw edema induced by carrageenin. Limonin also showed inhibitory effects on bradykinin-induced paw edema and arachidonic acid-induced ear swelling. These results suggest that limonin possesses an antinociceptive effect and the effect may be accompanied by an anti-inflammatory action, and that the antinociceptive activity in Evodiae Fructus is partially attributable to limonin.

Availability

Commercial limonin is obtained by extraction from Lemon seed or immature Lemon citrus.
 
        Lemon

Warning: 

Above information is only knowledge,not an instruction of usage for this product. The owner of this webiste should not be responsible for any damage because of misuse of the product.


NARINGIN

Identification

Ingredient

Naringin


Structure:

Synonyms

4,5,7-Trihydroxyflavanone 7-rhamnoglucoside, Naringenin-7-neohesperidoside

Molecular Formula

C27H32O14

Molecular Weight

580.54

CAS no.

10236-47-2

EINECS

233-566-4

Description

Naringin belongs to a group of chemicals called bioflavonoids, which are colorful pigments found in plants. They were discovered by Nobel Prize-winning biochemist Albert Szent-Gyorgi, who labeled them "vitamin P" (although they were subsequently stripped of their vitamin status). Bioflavonoids belong to a larger group of phytochemicals called polyphenols. Key polyphenols include phenolic acids, flavonoids, stilbenes, and lignans. Flavonoids are the most abundant polyphenols in our diets.

Distribution

Naringin is a flavonoid extracted from grapefruit and other citrus fruits (albeit in lower amounts). Its content is up to 8% in some kinds of grapefruit in China when it is immature, but in some varieties, the content is nearly zero.

In Spain, University of Murcia reported that the distribution of the flavanones naringin and neohesperidin has been analyzed during the development of the leaves, flower buds, and fruits of Citrus aurantium. These flavonoids are at maximum concentration in the organs studied during the logarithmic phase of growth, gradually decreasing until the organs reach maximum development. However, this decrease in the naringin and neohesperidin concentration in leaves, flower buds, and fruits is due to a dilution of the flavonoids caused by cell growth, because total content per organ continues to increase. The levels of neohesperidin are always greater than those of naringin, although the ratio between the relative concentrations is different in the three organs studied. Leaves have the highest ratios, varying between 8.83 and 5.18, followed by flowers (3.15-1.85), and fruits (2.23-1.02). These observations suggest different relationships between the respective enzymic activities in their biosynthetic pathway.

Application

Naringin is a natural chemical compound known as a bioflavanoid found in grapefruit, giving it its bitter flavor. Hence,the food industry, however, uses naringin as a bitter in "tonic" beverages, bitter chocolate, ice cream, and ices.

This bioflavonoid has antioxidant and antifungal properties, and as such may help prevent cancer and atherosclerosis (hardening of arteries), as well as a number of other ailments,such as Herpes ,Diabetes,Alcoholism,  Heart failure, Chronic venous insufficiency,Bruising.

Naringin also works synergistically with other nutrients, increasing the bio-availability (how much nutrient is absorbed by the body) and therefore maximizing the health benefits of these nutrients.

Of course,it is important to note this citrus extract interferes with enzyme activity in the intestines, and therefore can inhibit the breakdown of certain drugs. That is why you should consult with your physician if you are on any medication before eating grapefruit.

Availability

Commercial Naringin is obtained by extraction from immature fruit of Citrus Grandis Osbeck.


Dried immature fruit of Citrus Grandis Osbeck

Warning:

Above information is only knowledge,not an instruction of usage for this product. The owner of this webiste should not be responsible for any damage because of misuse of the product.


NEOHESPERIDIN

Identification

Ingredient

Neohesperidin

Structure:

Synonyms

Hesperetin 7-neohesperidoside

Molecular Formula

C28H34O15

Molecular Weight

610.56

CAS no.

13241-33-3

EINECS

236-216-9

Description

Neohesperidin is a bitter,white to almost white powder. Melting poins at 236~237℃. It is easily soluble in hot water,hot ethanol,insoluble in ether.

Application

The main use of Neohesperidin is to get Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone which is an intensive sweetener widely used in food and feed industry.

Distribution

In Spain, University of Murcia reported that the distribution of the flavanones naringin and neohesperidin has been analyzed during the development of the leaves, flower buds, and fruits of Citrus aurantium. These flavonoids are at maximum concentration in the organs studied during the logarithmic phase of growth, gradually decreasing until the organs reach maximum development. However, this decrease in the naringin and neohesperidin concentration in leaves, flower buds, and fruits is due to a dilution of the flavonoids caused by cell growth, because total content per organ continues to increase. The levels of neohesperidin are always greater than those of naringin, although the ratio between the relative concentrations is different in the three organs studied. Leaves have the highest ratios, varying between 8.83 and 5.18, followed by flowers (3.15-1.85), and fruits (2.23-1.02). These observations suggest different relationships between the respective enzymic activities in their biosynthetic pathway.

Another interesting fact is that the level of naringin increases with the growth of citrus fruit while the level of neohesperidin decreases till disappears. In China it is reported that the level of Neohesperidine is the highest in the peel of immature Citrus aurantium.

Availability

Commercial neohesperidin is obtained by extraction from immature citrus fruit.


Dried immature citrus fruit.

Warning:

Above information is only knowledge,not an instruction of usage for this product. The owner of this webiste should not be responsible for any damage because of misuse of the product.


POLY-METHOXYLATED FLAVONES (PMFS)

What is the PMFs ?


A joint study by the US Department of Agriculture and KGK Synergize, a Canadian nutraceutical company, identified a class of compounds isolated from orange and tangerine peels that shows promise in animal studies as a potent, natural alternative for lowering LDL cholesterol (so-called ‘bad' cholesterol), without the possible side effects, such as liver disease and muscle weakness, of conventional cholesterol-lowering drugs.

The findings, released in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, a peer-reviewed publication of the American Chemical Society, the world's largest scientific society, show that the compounds, called polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs), are similar to other plant pigments found in citrus fruits that have been increasingly linked to health benefits, including protection against cancer, heart disease and inflammation.

The main polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) exist in citrus are Tangeretin,Nobiletin and Sinesitin.

Identification of main PMFs

Ingredient

Tangeretin


Structure:

Synonyms

5,6,7,8-Tetramethoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4-benzopyrone

Molecular Formula

C20H20O7

Molecular Weight

372.37

CAS no.

481-53-8

EINECS

207-570-1


Ingredient

Nobiletin

Structure:

Synonyms

3',4',5,6,7,8-hexamethoxyflavone

Molecular Formula

C21H22O8

Molecular Weight

402.39

CAS no.

478-01-3

EINECS


Ingredient

Sinensetin


Structure:

Synonyms

3’,4’,5,6,7-pentamethoxyflavone

Molecular Formula

C20H20O7

Molecular Weight

372.39

CAS no.

2306-27-6

EINECS

Scientific support

The above joint study has shown that PMFs have the most potent cholesterol-lowering effect of any other citrus flavonoids and also PMFs have the potential to rival and even beat the cholesterol-lowering effect of some prescription drugs, without the risk of side effects.

Using hamster models with diet-induced high cholesterol, the researchers showed that feeding them food containing 1 per cent PMFs lowered levels of LDL cholesterol by 32 to 40 per cent.

Previous animal studies by others have shown that similar flavonoids, particularly hesperidin from oranges and naringin from grapefruit, also may have the ability to lower cholesterol, although not as effectively as PMFs.

Treatment with PMFs did not appear to have any effect on levels of HDL cholesterol, or good cholesterol,No negative side effects were seen in the animals that were fed the compounds,

The researchers are currently exploring the compound's mechanism of action on cholesterol metabolism. They now suspect, based on early results in cell and animal studies, that it works by inhibiting the synthesis of cholesterol and triglycerides inside the liver.

A long-term human study of the effect of PMFs on high LDL cholesterol is now in progress. While drinking citrus fruits is full of health benefits, taking PMF supplements could be an easier way to lower cholesterol, since a person would have to drink 20 or more cups a day of orange or tangerine juice to have a therapeutic effect.

Application

KGK Synergize already has developed a nutrition supplement containing PMFs combined with a form of vitamin E that seems to enhance the compound's effect, according to Kurowska. Marketed as a cholesterol-lowering agent under the trade name Sytrinol, the supplement recently became available in the US.

Distribution

PMFs are found in a variety of citrus fruits. The most common citrus PMFs, tangeretin and nobiletin, are found in the peels of tangerines and oranges. They are also found in smaller amounts in the juices of these fruits.

Availability

Commercial Polymethoxylated flavones are obtained by extraction from citrus peel,citrus oil and citrus fruit.


Citrus trees

Warning:

Above information is only knowledge,not an instruction of usage for this product. The owner of this webiste should not be responsible for any damage because of misuse of the product.

SYNEPHRINE

Identification

Ingredient

Synephrine


Structure:

Synonyms

1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(methylamino)ethanol; 4-hydroxy-alpha-(methylaminomethyl)benzyl alcohol; oxedrine

Molecular Formula

C9H13NO2

Molecular Weight

167.21

CAS no.

94-07-5

EINECS

202-300-9


Scientific support

Synephrine is an alkaloid (a pharmacologically active class of nitrogen-containing chemical compounds). Its chemical structure is similar to ephedrine, the primary active alkaloid in ephedra, aka ma-huang. There are only two chemical differences between ephedrine and synephrine: in synephrine one of the ring carbons is hydroxylated (a hydroxyl group {OH} replaces a hydrogen atom {H} ), and a side chain methyl group (CH3; Me) is replaced by hydrogen.

Therefore,synephrine is a stimulant, similar to caffeine and ephedrine, it is thought to have similar effects in terms of providing an energy boost, suppressing appetite and increasing metabolic rate and caloric expenditure.

Application

Synephrine is only rarely used as a drug in China, sometimes in high doses to treat shock, similar to the use of high doses of ephedrine for emergency cases of asthma. It is given by intravenous drip or push, with a dose of 20-60 mg. Using chi-shi aqueous extract in injection form, the dose used in Chinese medical practice corresponded to 20-60 grams of the herb, which could contain 60-180 mg of synephrine (3). These doses of the citrus alkaloids are similar, on a milligram basis, to those of ephedrine. Similarities in chemical structure, dosage, and effects between synephrine and ephedrine suggest that they may be compared directly. Synephrine was also suggested in Chinese and Western medical literature to be a potential treatment for bronchial asthma, as is ephedrine.
In USA, Citrus aurantium Extract with different levels of syenphrine is largely used in various products of weight loss and dietary supplements, and it can be used in beverage in EU countries although there are some disputes about its side effect.

Distribution

Synephrine is found mainly in the medicinal products derived from bitter orange. Bitter orange also called Seville orange, is known botanically as Citrus Aurantium L. This ingredient appears to be present in slightly higher quantities in the unripe fruit than in the ripe fruit.

Some citrus materials that have been assayed in China have a higher synephrine content; in one study, synephrine levels in citrus fruits and peels ranged from as little 0.1% to a very high 2.0% (9), while most reports place the level at about 0.25%.

Availability

Commercial synephrine (Citrus Aurantium Extract) is obtained by extraction from immature fruits of Citrus Aurantium L.


Immature fruits of Citrus Aurantium L.

Warning:

Above information is only knowledge,not an instruction of usage for this product. The owner of this webiste should not be responsible for any damage because of misuse of the product.


CITRUS BIOFAVONOIDS

What is it?

Bioflavonoids are a group of plant pigments that are responsible for the colors of many flowers and fruits. Citrus bioflavonoids are the bioflavonoids found in citrus fruits. The common citrus bioflavonoids include Apigenin,Diosmin,Diosmetin, Esperidin, Hesperidin, Hesperitin, Naringin, Naringenin, Narirutin, Neohesperidin,Nobiletin,Quercetin,Rutin,Tangeretin,Tangeritin.

The subgroup of flavonoids that possess biological activity ("bio" is a Greek prefix that indicates a relationship to life).

Scientific support

Citrus bioflavonoids encompass a diverse set of structures, including numerous flavanone and flavone O- and C-glycosides and methoxylated flavones. Each of these groups of compounds exhibits a number of in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory and anticancer actions. These biological properties are consistent with their effects on the microvascular endothelial tissue. Evidence suggests that the biological actions of the citrus flavonoids are possibly linked to their interactions with key regulatory enzymes involved in cell activation and receptor binding.

One of the main actions of citrus bioflavonoids is their work as antioxidants. Antioxidants function in the body to eliminate free radicals. Free radicals are incomplete molecules which result from normal body processes like breathing as well as exposure to environmental conditions like pollution, cigarette smoke, sunlight or herbicides. Free radicals cause damage on the cellular level and, if left unchecked, can lead to premature aging and are thought to contribute to the development of certain degenerative diseases.

Application

The efficacy of flavonoids and flavonoid-rich extracts in treating varicose veins is related to their ability to: (1) reduce capillary fragility, (2) increase the integrity of the venous wall, (3) inhibit the breakdown of the compounds composing the ground substance, and (4) increase the muscular tone of the vein.

Citrus bioflavonoids and related substances are widely used in Europe to treat diseases of the blood vessels and lymph system, including hemorrhoids, chronic venous insufficiency, leg ulcers, easy bruising, nosebleeds, and lymphedema following breast cancer surgery. Citrus bioflavonoids are thought to work by strengthening the walls of blood vessels.

Citrus bioflavonoids are believed to have anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, and anti-allergy properties. They have been shown to help fight infection, free radical damage, viruses and the common cold.

Citrus bioflavonoids are essential for the effective utilization of Vitamin C by the body. Bioflavonoids slow down the normal breakdown of Vitamin C in the body allowing it to be more effective. There is a mutual relationship between Vitamin C and citrus bioflavonoids as they work to mutually enhance the action of each other.

Distribution

Natural Citrus bioflavonoids are obtained directly from peel of citrus fruits or unripe little Citrus fruits. Then the main ingredients from different citrus species,such as Lemon, Grapefruit, Orange or Mandarine are total different. The main Citrus bioflavonoid obtained from little orange is Hesperidine which is almost insoluble in water, but from grapefruit the main bioflavonids are naringin and Neohesperidin which are soluble in water.

Availabity

Commercial Citrus bioflavonoids complex is obtained by extraction from different citrus fruits.


Different citrus fruits

Warning: 

Above information is only knowledge,not an instruction of usage for this product. The owner of this webiste should not be responsible for any damage because of misuse of the product.